Symptoms

Alzheimer's Society

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are generally mild to start with, but as more brain cells are damaged over time the symptoms get worse and start to interfere with a person’s day-to-day life. This makes them different from the changes that lots of people have as they get older, such as being a bit slower at thinking things through or forgetting something occasionally.

There are some common symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, but no one’s experience will be exactly the same as anyone else’s.

For most people, the first signs of Alzheimer’s are problems with their memory – in particular, difficulties recalling recent events and learning new information. This is because early on in Alzheimer’s the damage is usually to a part of the brain called the hippocampus. This has a big role in day-today memory. However, the person’s memory for events that happened a long time ago is not usually affected in the early stages.

As Alzheimer’s disease progresses, memory problems will usually affect someone’s daily life more and they may:

  • lose items (such as keys and glasses) around the house
  • forget a friend’s name, or struggle to find the right word in a conversation
  • forget about recent conversations or events
  • get lost in a familiar place or on a familiar journey
  • forget appointments or significant dates.

As well as memory difficulties, people with Alzheimer’s are also likely to have – or go on to develop – other problems. These include problems with thinking, reasoning, language or perception such as:

  • speech – they may repeat themselves or struggle to follow a conversation
  • seeing things in three dimensions and judging distances (visuospatial skills) – going up or down stairs or parking the car might become much harder
  • concentrating, planning or organising – they may struggle with making decisions, solving problems or carrying out a sequence of tasks (such as cooking a meal)
  • orientation – they may become confused or lose track of the day or date.

A person in the earlier stages of Alzheimer’s will often have changes in their mood. They may become anxious, depressed or more easily annoyed. Many people lose interest in talking to people, or in activities and hobbies. These changes can be challenging for both the person with dementia and those close to them to live with. Anyone finding things difficult should ask for support from a GP or other professional.

Later stages of Alzheimer's disease

As Alzheimer’s progresses, problems with memory loss, language, reasoning and orientation get much worse. A person with Alzheimer’s disease will need more day-to-day support.

Some people start to believe things that are untrue (having delusions) – for example, being convinced that someone is stealing from them. Less often, people see or hear things that are not really there (having hallucinations).

Many people with Alzheimer’s also start to behave in ways that aren’t normal for them. These might include becoming agitated (for example, being very restless or pacing up and down), calling out, repeating the same question, having disturbed sleep patterns or reacting aggressively. This can be distressing and challenging both for the person and anyone caring for them. The person may need treatment and support for these behaviours which is separate from any treatment specifically for memory problems.

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